Low and High-level languages
LOW LEVEL LANGUAGE: –
Low-level language includes machine language and assembly language.
MACHINE LANGUAGE OR BINARY LANGUAGE
Machine language is a low language. It is the language understood by the computer and uses binary digits’ o and 1.o refers to OFF state and 1 refers to ON state. Machine language is hardware dependent. The programmers who use machine language to write a program need to have very good knowledge of the machine hardware for which the program is being written.
Compared to Assembly and High-level language. Machine language programs are difficult to write. The size of machine language programs is small as compared to assembly language and high-level language programs.
Assembly language is also a low-level language, which uses letters and symbols known as mnemonics.
Assembly language programs are easier to write as compared to machine, language programs as they use English alphabet and integers. The person using assembly language should know the computer processor architecture for which the program is being written. Assembly language programs are machine dependent, so a program designed for one type of processor will not work for another type of processor. Finding errors and correcting them is easier in assembly language programs than in machine language programs.
FORTRAN: – Fortran stand for Formula Translator. Developed by John Backus and his team at IBM, it is used for scientific applications to do complicated calculations, as it is good in handling numbers.
COBOL: – Cobol stand for Common Business Oriented Language. Though FORTRAN was good at handling numbers, it was not so good at handling input and output, which mattered more to business computing. Business computing started to rise in 1995, and COBOL was developed to write programs to handle business tasks and data processing. COBOL statements also have a very English-like grammar, making it quite easy to learn.
PASCAL: – is named after the French mathematician, Blaise Pascal. It was developed by Nicklaus Wirth in 1968. Pascal combined the best features of the languages in use at the time: COBOL and FORTRAN. While doing so, many of the irregularities and odd statements of these languages were cleaned up, which helped it gain popularity. PASCAL is used for mathematical and scientific purposes.
C is programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at AT
& T, Bell Laboratories. It is based on PASCAL and all the features of Pascal, including the new ones are available in C. programs written in C are small in size. Ritchie developed C for the new Unix system (an operating system) being created at the same time. C is also used for writing programs related to commercial applications.
C++ is a programming language based on C. it is used for creating windows based programs. C++ is one of the most popular, powerful and widely used programming languages used for application programs.
JAVA: –JAVA is also a high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystem, USA around 1992. It is a language, which works on very type of computer and operating system. It is known as the language of the internet.
All the high-level languages have a set of commands, which is used to build a program. After completing a, you have to compile, check for errors (debug) correct them and then check the output for the correct functioning of the program. Compared to programs written in low-level languages, high-level language programs are bigger in size, occupy more space, take more time to execute but are easier to write and correct.