A computer must have both hardware and software to work. There are various type of software, with each having a particular function. We have studied about operating system, internet Browser, Microsoft Word, Paint and Power Point software.
TYPES OF SOFTWARE
On the basis of their functions and usage, software can be broadly classified into two categories:
(1). SYSTEM SOFTWARE
(2). APPLICATION SOFTWARE
SYSTEM SOTWARE: system software is a group of programs, which enables the functioning of a computer. System software is classified into many categories. Let us discuss some of them.
An operating system is a group of programs, which acts as an interface between the computer user and the computer. It manages operating of computer resources and devices like memory, processor, input and output devices and storage devices, etc. it gets loaded in computer memory when you switch ON a PC and remains there till the computer is switched OFF. The process of loading OS into a memory is called booting.
Some of the important functions of an operating system are given below:
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: an operating system is also said to be a resource manager as it manages resources like central processing unit (CPU) or processor, primary memory, secondary storage devices and peripheral devices, etc.
FILE MANAGEMENT: An operating system manages files by providing features for copying, moving, deleting, creating, accessing them.
USER INTERFACE: An operating system provides an interface through which a user can input a command from a prompt or from a graphical user interface screen and instruct a computer to do a task.
LANGUAGE PROCESSOR: – A language processor is used for writing programs. Language processor are not part of the operating system.
COMPILER: commands written in high-level language by user are converted to machine language, which are understood by the computer. Compilers translate the instructions in high-level language into machine language.
ASSEMBLER: An assembly level language processor uses letters and symbols as part of instructions typed by the user. An assembler is a program that translates instructions written in Assembly language into machine language.
INTERPRETER: An interpreter converts the program to machine language program, one line at a time.
UTILITIES: – Utilities are tools or aids that are used to perform computer file management, disc management and system maintenance, etc. Some utilities are inbuilt in OS and other are installed separately. Some of the system inbuilt utilities in Windows are Scandisc and Check disc for checking and correcting secondary storage media problems, explorer utility for file and folder management and format utility for formatting hard disc and Pen drives. Some common system utilities that have to be installed separately are Antivirus and Backup program.
Application software is a collection of programs designed as per the user’s requirement for a particular purpose, task or application. Application Software is developed by companies to meet the user’s requirement.
Application software can be broadly divided into two categories:
- CUSTOMIZED SOFTWARE
PACKAGES: – packages consist of software designed to meet the general requirements of most of the computer users.
CUSTOMIZED SOFTWARE: Software that has been designed particularly to meet the specific requirements of a certain organization or individual.